By Laura Garwin, Tim Lincoln, Steven Weinberg
The various clinical breakthroughs of the 20th century have been first mentioned within the magazine Nature. A Century of Nature brings jointly in a single quantity Nature's maximum hits—reproductions of seminal contributions that modified technological know-how and the area, followed through essays written through major scientists (including 4 Nobel laureates) that supply historic context for every article, clarify its insights in swish, obtainable prose, and have fun the serendipity of discovery and the rewards of attempting to find needles in haystacks.
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Additional info for A century of Nature: twenty-one discoveries that changed science and the world
He therefore assumed that they comprised four protons and two electrons (see ﬁgure). 2) might comprise three protons and one electron, and a heavy hydrogen, or 2H, nucleus (mass 2 and charge ϩ1) might have two protons and one electron. Today the 3He nucleus is known to comprise two protons and a neutron, and the 2H (deuterium) nucleus, also known as the deuteron (and for a while called the “diplon” by Rutherford), consists of a single proton and a neutron. Tritium, or 3H, the heaviest form of hydrogen, has one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus.
But an accident in the laboratory, and a fortuitous trip by Davisson to a conference in England, led them to realize that they were onto something much more important. In fact, their experiments, reported in Nature in 1927,1 provided the ﬁrst evidence that electrons could behave like waves. This set the seal on the concept of wave-particle duality—one of the pillars of the quantum revolution that shook physics in the early part of the twentieth century. Our story starts in 1900, when Max Planck explained a puzzling property of the radiation emitted by heated bodies by proposing that light is emitted and absorbed in packets, or “quanta,” of energy.
When, in 1911, Ernest Rutherford discovered the atomic nucleus, he proposed a “planetary” model for the atom, in which negatively charged electrons orbit the positively charged nucleus. But according to classical physics, the electrons would be expected to radiate energy as they orbited, causing them to spiral down into the nucleus; in such a picture, no atom could survive for longer than about a hundred trillionths of a second. Two years later, Niels Bohr addressed this problem by introducing Planck’s quantum into atoms.
A century of Nature: twenty-one discoveries that changed science and the world by Laura Garwin, Tim Lincoln, Steven Weinberg