By Alfredo Morabia (auth.), Alfredo Morabia (eds.)
Methods, simply as ailments or scientists, have their very own background. it will be important for scientists to concentrate on the genesis of the equipment they use and of the context during which they have been developed.
A background of Epidemiologic equipment and Concepts relies on a set of contributions which seemed in "SPM overseas magazine of Public Health", beginning in January 2001. The contributions specialise in the old emergence of present epidemiological equipment and their relative significance at diversified time cut-off dates, instead of on particular achievements of epidemiology in controlling plagues resembling cholera, tuberculosis, malaria, typhoid fever, or lung melanoma. The papers current the layout of potential and retrospective experiences, and the strategies of bias, confounding, and interplay. The compilation of articles is complemented by means of an creation and reviews by way of Prof. Alfredo Morabia which places them within the context of present epidemiological research.
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Extra resources for A History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts
The risk of dying from tuberculosis was 100%; the average time to death was 2 years. Thus, the death rate was [100 + 2 years=] 50% per year or< 1% per week, etc. " (Farr, Part II). A measure of risk is implicitly related to a duration! We can express a risk of the same event over 1 week, 1 year, 10 years, etc. 2) demonstrated, using a hypothetical example, the importance of this caveat in the context of a therapeutic trial comparing the ability of a vaccine to prevent disease attacks. By dividing the number of disease attacks by the total number of subjects inoculated during the year, we implicitly compute a risk over one year.
Why is this so? Because low-risk constitutions for chronic diseases are usually much more common than high-risk constitutions. The histogram in Figure 2 (corresponding to Figure 3 of Rose's paper) shows the prevalence of various categories of serum cholesterol levels in 246 men aged 55-64 at the baseline examination of the Framingham Heart Study. The way the numbers were obtained is shown in Table 8. dl (or 8 mmoVl), 3% of the population is hypercholesterolemic. 5 mmol/1) as recommended today, about 25% of the population is hypercholesterolemic.
33 Alfredo Morabia Table 9- Description of treatment and outcomes in James Lind's 1747 experiment on 6 pairs of seamen suffering from scurvy. Source: (Lind, 1753). Experimental pairs Treatment for each pair member Qualitative outcome 1 "a quart of cider a day" "twenty five gouts of elixir vitriol three times a-day, upon an empty stomach, using a gargle strongly acidulated with it for their mouths" "two spoonfuls of vinegar three times a-day upon an empty stomach, having their gruels and their other food well acidulated with it, as also the gargle for their mouth" "improved" "mouth but not internal improvement" "half a pint of sea water every day, and sometimes more or less as it operated, by way of gentle physic" "no remarkable alteration (.
A History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts by Alfredo Morabia (auth.), Alfredo Morabia (eds.)