By Jeremy Oats, Suzanne Abraham
1. Gynaecological and obstetric background and examination
2. Ovulation and the menstrual cycle
3. notion and placental development
4. Embryo and fetus
5. Physiological and anatomical alterations in pregnancy
6. Antenatal care
7. body structure and anatomical alterations in childbirth
8. direction and administration of childbirth
9. The puerperium
10. Minor issues of pregnancy
12. Extrauterine pregnancy/ectopic gestation
13. Antepartum haemorrhage
14. Hypertensive illnesses in pregnancy
15. Cardiovascular, breathing, haematological, neurological and gastrointestinal issues in pregnancy
16. Endocrine issues in being pregnant
17. Infections in the course of pregnancy
18. ailments of the placenta and membranes
19. adaptations within the period of pregnancy
20. The at-risk fetus
21. irregular fetal displays
22. irregular labour (dystocia) and lengthy labour
23. issues within the puerperium
24. Obstetric operations
25. The epidemiology of obstetrics
26. the baby little one
27. The low-birthweight child
28. problems of menstruation
29. mental and actual issues of the menstrual cycle
30. Human sexuality
31. notion keep watch over
33. Infections of the genital tract
34. Atrophic and dystrophic conditions
35. Endometriosis and adenomyosis
36. Benign tumours, cysts and malformations of the genital tract
37. Premalignant and malignant stipulations of the feminine genital tract
38. Uterovaginal displacements, harm and prolapse
39. The urinary tract and its dating to gynaecology
40. The breast
41. Gynaecological difficulties in youth and adolescence
42. The menopause
43. Anatomy of the feminine genital tract
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Additional resources for Llewellyn-Jones Fundamentals of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (9th Edition)
She should have a glucose tolerance test performed to exclude gestational diabetes mellitus, and she should be advised to eat a sensible but not a very low-energy diet. An underweight woman (BMI <18) should avoid becoming pregnant until she has gained weight, as she has a 20% chance of giving birth to a low-birthweight baby. Elements of weight gain in pregnancy Weight gain in pregnancy is caused by several factors: • The products of conception – the fetus, placenta and amniotic fluid • The maternal factors – the uterus and breasts, the increased blood volume, the increased stores of fat, water retention.
Percentage alteration +40 Cardiac output +30 Stroke volume +20 Heart rate +10 0 Central blood volume −10 −20 Peripheral resistance −30 8–12 24–28 IMMUNE SYSTEM CHANGES 36–40 Weeks of pregnancy Fig. 7 Cardiovascular dynamics: percentage alterations over non-pregnant levels occurring in pregnancy. increasing tidal volume and ventilation rate, thus permitting an increased mixing of gases and an increased oxygen consumption of 20%. It is thought that this effect is due to the increased secretion of progesterone.
Chapter |4| Embryo and fetus CHAPTER CONTENTS Nutrition Cardiovascular system Lungs Gastrointestinal tract Renal system Immune system Muscular system Endocrine activity 27 28 28 30 30 30 30 30 Once implantation has occurred the embryo develops rapidly. A neural primitive streak develops in the second week after fertilization; during the third week the fetal heart develops and links up with the primitive vascular system; during the fourth week the gut has formed; and by the sixth week the urogenital sinus has formed.
Llewellyn-Jones Fundamentals of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (9th Edition) by Jeremy Oats, Suzanne Abraham