By Frederick W Byron; Robert W Fuller

ISBN-10: 0201007452

ISBN-13: 9780201007459

ISBN-10: 0201007460

ISBN-13: 9780201007466

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And in these circumstances Bohr's thoughts seem to have run along lines, perhaps tied in with his philosophical background, that anticipated in some respects his later principle of complementarity. Some of his colleagues rejected the BOHR AND PROBLEMS OF ATOMIC THEORY 33 causality principle outright. 40 But Bohr, recognising that these factors were intimately linked but that neither a spatial description nor a causal description could be sacrificed altogether, moved only tentatively toward the idea that they might be incompatible.

The concept of electrons orbiting the atom was a classical mechanical concept, and as the Bohr theory developed the choice of possible orbits continued to be governed entirely by the requirements of the classical theory. Bohr's orbital model of the atom was explicitly a model, of course, and Bohr himself was the first to insist that it could not be interpreted as in any sense structurally true. 7 Rather as in mediaeval planetary theory, the details of the atomic model were varied at leisure, within the basic form, so as to produce the required observed results.

The one calculate a given problem fIrst with half-integral values of the quantum numbers, and if it doesn't agree with experiment they then do it with integral quantum numbers. The others calculate fIrst with whole numbers and if it doesn't agree then they calculate with halves. But both groups of atomic physicists have the property in common, that their theories offer no a priori reasoning which quantum numbers and which atoms should be calculated with half-integral values of the quantum numbers and which should be calculated with integral values.

### Mathematics of Classical and Quantum Physics [Vols 1 and 2] by Frederick W Byron; Robert W Fuller

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