By William G. Lycan
Philosophy of Language: a modern creation introduces the coed to the most matters and theories in 20th century philosophy of language, focusing in particular on linguistic phenomena.
Topics are dependent in 4 components within the ebook. half I, Reference and Referring Expressions, comprises subject matters akin to Russell's conception of Desciptions, Donnellan's contrast, difficulties of anaphora, the outline concept of right names, Searle's cluster thought, and the causal-historical conception. half II, Theories of that means, surveys the competing theories of linguistic that means and compares their a number of merits and liabilities. half III, Pragmatics and Speech Acts, introduces the elemental strategies of linguistic pragmatics, encompasses a specified dialogue of the matter of oblique strength and surveys techniques to metaphor. half IV, new to this version, examines the 4 theories of metaphor.
Features of Philosophy of Language include:
new chapters on Frege and puzzles, inferentialism, illocutionary theories of which means and relevance theory
bankruptcy overviews and summaries
transparent supportive examples
annotated extra reading
Read or Download Philosophy of Language: A Contemporary Introduction (2nd Edition) PDF
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Additional info for Philosophy of Language: A Contemporary Introduction (2nd Edition)
Definite descriptions 17 Frege’s Puzzle An example featuring a definite description: (8) The present Queen of England is [one and the same individual as] Elizabeth Windsor. (8)’s left-hand term is a definite description, so let us paraphrase it away in Russell’s manner: At least one person is presently Queen of England [presently queens England], and at most one person is presently Queen of England, and whoever is presently Queen of England is [one and the same as] Elizabeth Windsor. In symbols: (∃x) (Qx & ((y) (Qy → y = x) & x = e)).
Negative Existentials (2) Pegasus never existed. As before, (2) seems to be true and seems to be about Pegasus, but if (2) is true, (2) cannot be about Pegasus . . Notice that there is a worse complication here than is raised by the Problem of Apparent Reference to Nonexistents alone: whereas (1) is meaningful despite the nonexistence of James Moriarty, (2) is not only meaningful despite Pegasus’ nonexistence but actually and importantly true. The idea of senses as particular modes of presentation affords Frege at least an impressionistic solution to the Problem of Negative Existentials (though whether this was actually his view and how it might be made precise are unclear): (2) can be taken to mean roughly that the sense of “Pegasus,” the conception of a winged horse ridden by Bellerophon, fails to find a referent— not even a “nonexistent” one.
This is very plausible. The second direct argument (never given explicitly so far as I know) calls attention to a kind of clarificatory question. Suppose you hear someone using a name, say “Lili Boulanger,” and you do not know who the speaker is talking about. You ask who that is. The speaker replies, “Oh, the first woman ever to have won the Prix de Rome, in 1913, with her cantata Faust et Hélène”; and that is a proper answer. You asked because, so to speak, you did not understand the name you heard.
Philosophy of Language: A Contemporary Introduction (2nd Edition) by William G. Lycan